What is the explanation of the success of the project management techniques?
What is a project?
What characterizes a project?
What are the advantages and disadvantages of using project management?
Why do projects succeed or fail?
What tools can be used to develop a project?
What are the most sought after certifications in 2011 in Project Management?
The organization of the activities on projects and the management of the projects were, initially, a very efficient solution for reaching major objectives, in the military or the construction field.
With the development of the information systems for the management of the activities - especially with the generalization of the use of the modern techniques belonging to the information technology - the project management has been extended to all the activities of the economy, as it has proven its capacity to cope with the new trends manifested worldwide:
Definition: The project is an investment of resources for a given period, with the purpose of achieving a specific objective or set of objectives. In other words, a project is an idea to improve a state of affairs.
Thus, the project is not synonymous neither with the business plan (which must highlight the situation of an organization and its competitive economic environment at any given time) nor with the feasibility study (which must highlight the necessity and benefits of implementing the project idea).
The planning and realization of the activities necessary to reach the objectives of the project involve the use of techniques and tools specific to project management.
A project can also be characterized by:
Purpose. The project is an activity with a well-defined set of objectives, it is quite complex to be divided into tasks that require coordination and control of deadlines, the succession of tasks, costs and performances.
Life cycle. The projects go through a slow stage of initiation, then grow rapidly, reach the peak, begin the decline and finally end.
Interdependent. The project interacts with the organization's current operations and often with other projects.
Oneness. Each project contains elements that make it unique.
Conflict. The realization of a project involves the use of human and material resources already used within the functional departments of the organization; very often, the project competes similar projects or actions proposed or carried out by other organizations.
Project management allows:
Project management can lead, at the same time, to:
Project management is a complex activity, which requires compliance with certain specific algorithms.
The success of a project depends on the extent to which the initiating organization manages to avoid (or minimize) the effects of the action of some internal and external factors:
A. Internal factors
B. External factors
In addition to the tools currently used to collect, systematize and analyze information on the applicant organization and the economic-social environment in which it operates (balance sheet, profit and loss account, other financial-accounting evidence of the organization, market studies, etc.), Project management uses a number of specific tools and techniques (for example logic framework method, Gantt or PERT type diagrams or SWOT analysis).
Project management has been developed as a result of increasing access to modern information technologies so that today technologies have become tools that facilitate working in multidisciplinary teams (groupware), the use of information systems dedicated to project management (which use work in virtual offices). , programs for project planning, implementation and evaluation, project risk assessment, etc.).
An equally useful tool, even if of a different nature, is represented by the professional associations for the management of the project, which facilitates the access to the last-minute information relevant to the organizations that use - or intend to develop - a project-based management organization.